On 2 August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, which it annexed two days later. After seven months of Iraqi occupation, a US-led coalition evicted the Iraqi forces. During the occupation, Kuwait contends that more than 600 of its citizens went missing, while Iraq, for its part contends that over 1,000 Iraqis disappeared in Kuwait.

A so-called Tripartite Commission, composed of representatives of Iraq, Kuwait, and members of the coalition, is chaired by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Its role is to ascertain the fate of people who went missing as a result of the Iraqi invasion. In cooperation with the Kuwaiti and Iraqi governments, ICMP has assisted the government of Kuwait in securing DNA-based identification of victims.

The Tripartite Commission has determined that more than 300 people who went missing during the 1990-1991 conflict, including 217 Kuwaitis, 94 Iraqis, and 12 Saudis have been accounted for.